Exercise to the 4th Lecture

Art and Typography
Architecture and Typography

General guidance

Design the exercises in an abstract, non–objective way … that is concrete. That way we won’t have problems with “meanings” and we will see primarily the art.

Old analog media have an absolute advantage in implementation. Mostly drawing, collage… You take an image and upload the product to an online classroom.
However, make sure the footage is of good quality; straight papers, parallel edges without perspective distortion, and above all good lighting. Post processing is also possible on a computer.
However, all the themes are adapted to work with the computer.

I use equivalent terms of shape and form. They have the same meaning. I just want to make a clear distinction between the form you have to choose, create, or as required by the task, and the shapes that emerge at work, or the shapes that are already a property of everything that is visible

You submit all the pages of the exercise in a single common acrobat — pdf data file.
File name: name_surname_4.pdf
Image size (height) 1080 x (width) 1920 px.


Open, half–open, half–closed and closed space

The space between the shapes has the same optical value as the space inside the shapes. I soon discover that this space is also a surface. The problem, however, is that this amount of space has to fit into different forms. But these forms are often difficult to measure. So a visual designer is a man who constantly measures the surfaces of ever–changing forms.

By definition (limitation), I can divide the inside spaces of forms into three groups. Enclosed spaces, fully defined, of “o” or “p” type. The following group represents partialy enclosed spaces of type “n” or “a”. The third group are open spaces like “c” or “z”. The shapes of the first two types is not difficult to properly assemble into assemblies (sets). However, when assembling the third type, I soon find it difficult to distinguish between the space belonging to the shape itself, that is, between its inner space and the space to the adjacent shapes. The solution to this problem lies in the realization that a certain part, that is, the intersection of both spaces, has a dual function. This part is both an indoor and exterior space. This intermediate part acts as a boundary. However, it changes constantly as the size of the elements changes. In addition, each individual will define this area slightly differently.

Such double–function areas appear everywhere in assemblies (sets). And now I realise why ornaments and decorations are so important. They help the designer and the user or the viewer to more clearly and simply define the interior spaces and exterior spaces of the shapes, making it easier to identify and distinguish.


The core of the task lies in distinguishing two concepts: texture and structure. This is sometimes different in Slovenian than in other European languages.

Texture is a property of surfaces. They are smooth, rough… Texture is associated with the touch. Texture of sandpaper. We visually associate it with raster.

Structure, however, is a building, an edification, a composition, an assembly … it can also be a composition.

There are always so many texture elements that I would by no means count. On the contary, normaly I can count the elements of the structure


4-1a Find interesting textures: textures, raster… in colors or black and white.

4-1b Take an interesting picture, a composition… based on surfaces. Or make it up.

4-1c Replace light shades and colors with textures. The composition can be inj color or black and white. Use repetition, scale, layers and color. Make two compositions. The compositions should be architecture”.


4-2a I create two new compositions using the textures of the first part of the exercise.

4-2b Compose the individual surfaces of the first part of the exercise in an assembly. Change the magnitudes and positions of the surfaces and thus affect the balance, tension, depth… To achieve a stronger depth effect, surfaces can also partially extend over the format (1080 x 1920 px). Make two compositions. The compositions should be architecture.


Keep the two parts of the exercise as consistent as possible. The connecting elements are this texture path. So the same texture in all four pictures of both parts of the exercise.

The weight of the assignment is on the first part of the exercise. But when in doubt, when it comes to understanding the task correctly, the second part often helps me.

The problem with lesson 4 is that most do not distinguish between:
texture – surface property (related to tactile experience),
silhouette – outline and
structure – structure and structure (internal structure).

Fig. 1: Maurits Cornelis Escher